Advances of balloons had not stopped works on the creation of an aeroplane. On the contrary, the more successful was the work at controlled balloons, the wider was the development activities of researchers and engineers of trying to build airplanes. These works are still going in several directions: the study of the birds’ flight, building models, building a life-size airplanes and theoretical studies.
Physiologist Marey had subtle experiments on the mechanics of bird flight, and establish a relationship between the size, weight and power of birds. Similar studies were conducted subsequently by famous Otto Lilienthal in Germany and Muyyar in Algeria.
The Frenchman Alphonse Peno built remarkably stable in flight model with rubber engine – planophores.
Beautiful flying models were built by Parisian watchmaker Victor Tateno. One of his models equipped with a pneumatic engine that run on two propellers, was tied with a long rope to a peg that was standing in the middle of the smooth ground. It running on this platform, taking off and flying in circles.
In the US, Samuel Langley built and tested a whole series of models, researching air resistance, the influence of the angle of attack and the lift and drag, determining the position of the center of pressure at different angles of attack, figuring out the laws of sustainability.
The Englishman Line-Field built a glider with wings and had barred him mounted on a railway platform, and at 65 km / h glider was taking off.
Australian Hargrove has built an extremely interesting model, which gave no propeller thrust and flapping wings. Such models with air motor or miniature steam engines flew up to 150 and.
In Russia, many models were built and tested by V.Kress. Vladimir Kotov also built numerous paper models, which had a remarkable stability. Kotov studied the laws of stability and controllability on these models, independently developed all controls and proved their effect in flight.
Building models has had a great impact on the continued success of airplanes, facilitating the study of the basic laws of aerodynamics and stability.
Since 1874 Clement Ader has begun to work over the aeroplane in France. This talented engineer and hard worker built several original full-size aircraft; those ones externally have been resembling a bat. These airplanes were equipped with steam engines.
Last K. Ader aeroplanes were called Avion III with two steam engines with a total capacity of 40 hp. They had a gross weight of about 400 kg. This airplane was tested October 12, 1897 by Ader himself. At the first trial the machine made short takeoffs. In the second test on a windy day Ader was unable to conduct an airplane in the air in the desired direction. Avion fell and broke down. Soulless War Ministry officials refused to fund further Ader experiments and he left works on aeroplanes.
The famous inventor of machine guns Hiram Maxim led more research in the field of mechanical flight in England. His work included monitoring the flight of birds, laboratory tests of the wings and propellers, the study of the kites and finally building a huge airplane with two steam engines with a total capacity of 350 hp.